Keita made his first start since September, having overcome various niggling injuries during the start of his Reds career.
The Guinean impressed in the middle of the park, often the catalyst for Liverpool's attacking play and drive from midfield.
Henderson, who was also brought back in after being suspended against Everton, praised the 23-year-old and backed him to improve further.
“I thought he started (the season) really well and then got an injury which set him back a little bit but I thought he was outstanding,” he said.
“You can see how good he is on the ball, how comfortable he is; driving the ball forward, which is important for us.
“I think he’ll go from strength to strength as he gets more games and experience but I think you can already see he’s a fantastic player.”
Victory means the Reds have never had as many points as they do now (39) after the first 15 games of the Premier League.
“We’re delighted with the three points. I was really pleased with the reaction to going 1-0 behind,” he added.
“That’s really pleasing for us as a squad, especially with all of the changes. The lads that have come in, have done a great job and it shows how good the squad is.
“We’re going to need everyone over the next few months because the games come thick and fast. We need everyone to play their part.
“We knew Burnley were an aggressive team and they’ve got some good players. They want to win.
“Of course, there’s a couple of tackles that could have gone either way but they’ve managed to get the ball and that makes all the difference but I thought we reacted well.
“We kept playing the ball. If you lose your head you can pick up cards. The focus was brilliant in terms of maintaining control and creating chances.”
Liverpool will now be hoping to build on their momentum with an away trip to Bournemouth to come on Saturday.
It will be intriguing to see how many of the drafted in players can keep their place, with supporters hoping Keita can now be given an opportunity for a run of games.