Jurgen Klopp's side could have gone ahead inside the opening fifteen minutes as Mohamed Salah was brought down by Wilfred Ndidi inside the box, with referee Michael Oliver awarding a spot-kick for the Reds.
Salah stepped up to the mark but his penalty was kept out by goalkeeper Kasper Schmeichel before his header from the rebound crashed against the crossbar as a huge opportunity to take an early lead went begging.
Henderson, Jota and Salah all had efforts to give Liverpool the lead, whilst Jamie Vardy and James Maddison were equally threatening for the hosts, but it remained goalless at the break.
Mane missed a glorious chance in the early stages of the half and Leicester took full advantage as substitute Ademola Lookman made the Reds pay for their lack of finishing touch.
The on-loan Leipzig winger combined with Kiernan Dewsbury-Hall before collecting the ball, bursting inside the box and cutting across Joel Matip before dispatching a powerful low strike past Alisson to give the hosts a 1-0 lead.
Liverpool went in search of an equaliser and they had chances, particularly through set-pieces, but it wasn't to be as Leicester thwarted the Reds from scoring for the first time in 35 games and inflict a second defeat of the season on Klopp's side.