Liverpool threatened a second goal but they were dealt a blow when Sadio Mane was forced off with a suspected hamstring injury.
Wolves stayed in the game and defended admirably before turning the screw in the second half, with Nuno Espirito Santo's side putting Liverpool under real pressure.
The pressure paid off as Adama Traore found Raul Jimenez in the box, with the Mexican striker nodding past Alisson with a brilliant header.
With time running out, Henderson found Roberto Firmino, who turned the ball onto his left foot and hammered past Rui Patricio in goal to give Liverpool another late victory.
Slide through our gallery below for all the best photos from Molineux.